Unit testing Anti-pattern – Not Asserting
|This series goes through anti-patterns when writing tests. Yes, there are and will be many.|
|TDD without refactoring||Logic in tests||Misleading tests||Not asserting|
|Code matching||Data transformation||Asserting on not null||Prefixing test names with "test"|
You’d think that we don’t need this kind of post in our day and age, but I still see tests written without the assert part.
This pattern, as you’d expect, appears with beginners. However, when I ask, they usually know that they should assert.
So why do they still write tests like that?
A test without an assert (containing only an action with a possible setup) makes sure that the process works without an exception. In any other case, the test passes.
Crashing isn’t everything
I think that we can agree that knowing the code doesn’t crash is valuable.
In fact, if we expend the unit test into a wider scope (like integration, or an end-to-end test), it tells us that not only the functionality doesn’t blow up. The wiring, configuration and the whole path doesn’t blow up either. This is useful to know.
And usually this is where tests without asserts start.
We’re talking about beginners. They use their new found execution engine (read: unit test framework) for running a process, and see that it doesn’t break. The new tool helps with identifying that.
There is a deeper issue, though.
Beginners who start unit testing, usually don’t immediately rely on the tests as their only proof of working code. So the tests are written, after the code has proved to be working by running the application, or by other tool.
The process is: Write the code, check it works, and then write the test. When we write the test, we already know the code works. Now we have a test for it, one that doesen’t crash.
“Ok, boss, here’s the test you wanted me to write, and it proves that my code works, happy?”
Not only is the test writing extra work, now we need the assertion on top of it. Even more work.
You know what comes after the boss looks at the code, and mentions that the test doesn’t have an assert? Asserting on not-null. It’s the easiest to add.
And this is how we get working tests without assertions that are considered “ok”.
The right way
Much like assertion on a non-null return value, we can do better. While there is value in that kind of test, we value more having a specific assert that tells us where the problem is.
The value of the assertion, is that we specify the behavior we expect. Experienced developers start with how they will check the behavior, before setting up the test.
Even if it’s just one side effect of the operation, the assertion tells us what to look for, and what code caused that effect. Using triangulation we can pin point the problem and fix it quickly.
If we write the assertion we can learn that the code needs to expose information for the tests, and possible other clients. It can help with making code more usable.
If tests don’t have an assert, or if the assertion is on non-null, ask “how do you know it works?” in the context of the test. Once this question is answered, you can craft the assert accordingly.